Thursday, February 12, 2009

Operation Fortitude : An art of Deception Part II




Map: Allies route on Normandy invasion


On April 1944 ,the picture is getting clearer for Hitler when he received another intelligence report from his agents in Switzerland that every Map of Pas De Calais area has been mysteriously bought. This sealed his conviction : Pas De Calais would be the target for Allied invasion. The next question stood still was : when will it happens?
Hitler continued to receive intelligence information. This time he collect information from an agent which German intelligence believed was a double agent,Juan Puyol (codename :GARBO) They continue to kept him because they want to know what the enemy want them to know. The agents reported that the location would be the coast of Normandy, on 5th,6th,7th of June 1944. Hitler and his German intelligence staffs believed that the allied wanted to disinformed them through Juan Puyol . He believed Normandy on 5th-7th June was a decoy. He had a feeling that he had seen through the “deception” .In fact he was “starring” at the truth.

June the 6th 1944 in the morning, Hitler wokes up suprisedly. The invaders had landed its massive troops on Normandy. Even at the critical moments he still hesitate if the attack was only a decoy. He feared if the invasion was only a bait while the real attack were still from FUSAG. He issued no orders to his Generals to mobilize his troops to Normandy,While they were anxious to quickly repel the allies in Normandy. One week later he finally found out that Normandy was the real invasion. His next action to counter the invasion was too late. The tide of wars has turned.

Keys to Victory :
Before Operation Overlord commenced, A deception plan was made by Allies intelligence. They launched “operation Fortitude” to create a disinformed situation in enemys top branch.It was initially envisioned that deception would occur through five main channels:

  • Physical deception
    to mislead the enemy with non-existent units(FUSAG) through fake infrastructure and equipment :Working with film Designers the allies elaborate set of rubber, plastic and woods that from a german reconnaissance planes would look like enormous camp of tents , airplanes and tanks.

  • Controlled leaks of information
    through diplomatic channels, which might be passed on via neutral countries to the Germans : Maps which was bought in Switzerland was meant to be a planted false information. The repatriated general was set to meet with troops heading to Normandy but he thought it was FUSAG the phantom unit.

  • Wireless traffic transmission
    the creation of non-existent units through simulation of the wireless traffic which would be detected by the enemy : German agents reported about transmission signaling FUSAG existence.

  • Use of German agents controlled by the Allies
    through the Double Cross System to send false information to the German intelligence services : Juan Puyol codename Garbo was sent out to bring the true information which confused Hitler to the end.

  • Public presence of notable staff associated with phantoms groups
    such as FUSAG (First U.S. Army Group), most notably George S. Patton, the best known senior Allied combat commander.


Operation Fortitude was a succesful deception operation. It decides the end result of operation Overlord , the operation that turned the tide of WW II.

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